9. Revelation of critical sections in industrial process, establishing their reasons and methods of solution.
Let us dwell on the main critical moment for profitable felling, which is a lack of timber-carrying roads of all-the-year-round usage. Performed calculations and practice showed that their construction is unprofitable.
Let us calculate the volume of production, which will be transported by the built road, in order to estimate the profitability of road construction.
Average density of afforestation makes 100 cubic meters on one hectare of forestland. Average rate of forest maturing in Northwestern part of European Russia is 100 years. Thus, following the laws on the exploitation of calculated wood-cutting area currently in force, it is possible to get one cubic meter of timber per one hectare of forestland a year.
If a is a distance from the actual place of felling to the constructed timber-carrying road, then 2a is forest area around one kilometer of the built timber-carrying road, calculated in square kilometers, or 200Á – in hectares. Using mechanized felling, one can go deep into the forest from the road on a distance no more, than one kilometer, Á=1km. Thus, it is possible to calculate, that the volume of timber, acquired from one kilometer of the built road per year, comprises 200 cubic meters. Prime cost of construction of all-the-year-round used road is approximately $30 per meter of roadbed, which is equal to one million rubles per kilometer. At the average timber sale price equal to 500 rubles per cubic meter (including technical raw material and firewood) the volume of timber, covering the construction of one kilometer of road is approximately 2000 cubic meters. Consequently, the expenses on the construction of one kilometer of timber-carrying road could be reimbursed in 10 years on conditions that all the earnings from the felled and sold production would be used to cover the cost of the built road.
Expenses on the construction of a temporary forest road made of timber (plank road) are one thousand cubic meters on a kilometer of road. But, though the period of reimbursement is reduced up to 4-5 years, it is necessary to take into account that by the dates of contiguity cultivation of pieces of woodland in quarters, where plank roads are already built, will be conducted after the period, when the road will wear out: timber will rot, the road collapse.
Application of Finnish technology gives the possibility to go deep into the forest on a distance of 4 kilometers and allows to gather yearly from the area, covered by one kilometer of road up to 800 cubic meters, which is also insufficient to achieve even minimal level of enterprise’s profitability.
The prime cost of construction of one kilometer of winter road equals to one cubic meter of timber. But timber felling and transportation can only be conducted during the winter period. This leads to the increase of non-productive expenses during the enterprise’s period of idle time.
Calculated volume of timber, which must be transported by the road to reimburse its construction, is more than 2 000 cubic meters per one kilometer a year. According to this, it is necessary to apply interim transportation on the distance of 10 kilometers.
The existing technology of logging can be covered (actually it had been covered) exclusively by final harvesting on the whole territory, adjoining the timber-carrying road. In this case, the road construction is reimbursed by 100 times, and the cost of road construction comes to 10% of the value of felled timber.
But final harvesting leads to the inability of forestland to self-reproduction, swamping of the area and changing of climate and besides it is necessary to take into consideration that the distance of transportation is constantly increasing. This leads to the increase of expenses on transportation and as a result to the unprofitability of production.
On the basis of the research on this question and local conditions, engineering requirements were made up for an interim transportation truck; negotiations with producers were held during which the cost of such equipment was determined. As a result, the functioning of an enterprise using such equipment was numerically simulated.